Links to graduation requirements:
Diplomas & Transcripts
Graduation Requirements for all Diploma OptionsAccording to Pennsylvania’s homeschooling law (Act 1988-169), the following courses are required for graduation from a home education program:
Art, Bible, Dance, Foreign Language, Home-economics, Music, Philosophy, Practical living, and Shop.
A one year course will equal one full course credit.
The law further requires that the following areas must be covered in some way at the secondary level (7th-12th): geography, civics, world history, history of the United States and Pennsylvania, general mathematics, algebra, geometry, safety education (including fire safety), health and physiology, physical education, music, and art.
Since the law does not specify how much of each subject must be covered, there are two options.
(1) Students may study these subjects sometime during grades nine through twelve as a credit or partial credit toward graduation. The courses and credits would then be listed on the student's transcript.
(2) The required subjects may be taught in either seventh or eighth grade. High school credit would not be given, but neither would the courses have to be repeated in grades nine through twelve. The ECHSDA Diploma Transcript includes a paragraph to cover this second option. The evaluator's signature on the transcript verifies that the necessary coursework was completed at the secondary level.
Follow this link to download a General Diploma Checklist: General Checklist
To receive the Academic Diploma, the following guidelines must be used to determine if credits will be issued.
English: The four years of English must each include literature, composition, language, and speech. Requirements for each area follow:
1. Literature - Each year, the student will read at least fifteen books in any subject area, fiction or non-fiction, including one classic. A list of titles of at least fifteen books will demonstrate that a student has met this requirement. An anthology that is considered by the publishers to be one year's course of study may count for ten of the required books. The Bible will be treated as an anthology and considered as a classic. At the discretion of the evaluator the quality and length of books can be taken into consideration in order to accept credit for a student who has not met the quantity requirement. These books should be written at a high school level. While such books as the "Little House" books are classics, they are clearly written at an elementary reading level.
2. Composition and Language - Each year the student must demonstrate improvement in composition and language skills by writing three compositions, one of which is a long report using a minimum of three sources. The long report must be at least three pages (typed double spaced or hand written single spaced) in the ninth grade, five pages in the tenth grade, seven pages in the eleventh grade, and eight pages in the twelfth grade. Long reports must also include a bibliography page. While use of quotes gives authority to a work, overuse of quotes takes away from the quality of the work. Most papers should be non-fiction; however one long paper can be fiction if there are sources cited which indicate research on the subject. In order to meet the language requirement, rough drafts that show that punctuation, usage, and/or grammatical errors were corrected in the process of writing these compositions will be accepted. If you choose not to keep rough drafts to show that grammar was covered, the language requirement can be met through completion of over one fourth of a language or grammar textbook or at least forty-five daily logged entries of work in language or grammar study.
3. Speech - The student must give at least one speech during the year to a group outside of the immediate family. A speech is any student prepared public speaking or teaching (Sunday School, Boy Scouts, etc.). A recitation is not a speech. The speech need not be more than five to seven minutes, but improvement should be noted over the high school years. Any one of the following will be accepted as proof that the student has met this requirement:
(1) notes which the student used when giving the speech
(2) recognition from the organizers of the event where the speech was given, or
(3) a description of the event and speech, written by the student or parent.
As previously stated, all four credits of English required by Pennsylvania law must meet the basic requirements outlined above if a student is working toward an Academic Diploma or an Academic Diploma with Honors. In addition to work completed for the required four credits, a student may complete supplemental course work to earn more specific English course credits (e.g. speech, creative writing, journalism, or business English). These additional credits would be awarded according to guidelines for "other courses excluding mathematics" as listed below. For additional credit to be accepted, these courses must be designated as specific courses on the ECHSDA Diploma Transcript.
Other courses (excluding mathematics): Any one of the following alternatives will be accepted as evidence of completion of one year of credit for courses in other subject areas (excluding mathematics).
1. Completion of over three-fourths of a textbook
** Programs such as ACE, which have clearly defined numbers of paces, are excluded from this alternative and must be completed in their entirety. In addition, for any course which uses more than one textbook to equal one credit or specifically states that a certain text is a one half credit course, the student must complete the course as designed by the provider, using the number of textbooks specified.
2. Logged entries describing at least 120 hours of study and/or activities related to the course content.
3. Completion of a research paper.
** The research paper must use at least three non-encyclopedic references, demonstrate learning of a subject, and include the student’s own conclusions based upon his research. There must be a thesis statement in the introduction which will be followed through to the conclusion. Follow MLA guidelines (or another standard format) to ensure a properly formatted paper. In order to count as a full credit, the paper must reflect an entire year's worth of research and be at least ten pages in length.
4. Presentation of a speech of at least thirty minutes duration.
** The speech, presented to a group outside of the immediate family, should demonstrate a thorough understanding of the subject as well as conclusions drawn by the student from his study.
5. Completion of a college course.
6. Passing test score on an Advance Placement exam (i.e. three points out of the possible five).
Mathematics: Only options one, two, five, and six would be considered when issuing credit for mathematics coursework. Also, to receive an Academic Diploma, the student must take either algebra or geometry as one of the three mathematics credits.
Follow this link to download an Academic Diploma Checklist: Academic Checklist
Mathematics – The student must complete Algebra I & II, Geometry, Trigonometry, and Calculus sometime prior to graduation. The courses may be completed at any grade level; however, four full math credits, including a full credit in Calculus, must be earned during the four years of high school to qualify for honors in mathematics.
Science - The student must complete four science credits. A minimum of two credits must be earned in two of the higher sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics, or a college level science. In addition, the student must write at least two research papers* based on student designed experiments. In designing his own experiments, the student will explore his own hypotheses and defend them.
Social Studies - The student will take four social studies credits and will write at least two research papers* which explore original hypotheses and defend them. On the diploma, honors will be stated "in Social Studies" unless four full courses were taken in one specific social studies discipline.
Computer Science / Programming - The student will take four computer science credits and write at least two original computer programs with explanations for how they are to work. The papers should be written so that anyone could use the programs. Courses which deal primarily with computer repair do not meet honors requirements.
Foreign Language - The student will take four credits in one foreign language. Student will write a paper in that language and read a novel or other non-textbook in the language in each of the last two years. Student will also demonstrate fluency in speaking the language. For those who are taking sign language the requirements change to writing a paper on deafness, adventitious deafness, etc., watching five videos about deaf people (fiction or non-fiction), and twenty hours of interpreting to CDs.
Humanities - At the discretion of the evaluator and with adequate documentation - including two research papers* - four years of concentrated study in one field of humanities (e.g. philosophy) will be accepted.
Fine Arts - At the discretion of the evaluator and with adequate documentation, four years of concentrated study in any fine arts area (e.g. art, music, design, or dance) will be accepted. Theory and history of the subject should be studied each year. In addition to performance or exhibition of work, two research papers* shall be written on history, theory, or another aspect of your fine arts area.
*Please note: For research paper guidelines, refer to point three in "Other courses excluding mathematics." The research papers required for honors must be in addition to any ten page research papers written for course credit if "completion of a research paper" is the method used to provide evidence for one credit in any given subject.
The student's Honors English program should be based heavily on literature, including both fiction and non-fiction from various genres such as novels, short stories, poetry, drama, essays, and periodicals. It is recommended that each year's study be concentrated on a specific type of literature to include American Literature, English Literature, and World Literature. Each year, the honors student will read a minimum of twenty-five books, including at least three classics. Classics must be written at a high school level. Lists of appropriate classics can be found on websites, at the local library, or through an evaluator. It is vital to remember that the quality of literature read by an honors student is as important as the quantity.
Literary analysis is an important aspect of a good Honors English literature curriculum. The honors student should understand and identify literary terms (plot, setting, characterization, etc.) and devices (refrain, parallel structure, simile, metaphor, foreshadowing, etc.), and should be able to recognize logical fallacies and ad hominem attacks.
The minimum composition requirement for each year of high school for Honors English is six papers, however an honors student should write significantly more, with an emphasis on the quality of writing. Writing, proof reading, and revising are integral aspects of a composition course, therefore frequent writing assignments are expected. The honors student's compositions should show continual improvement in purpose, organization, language mastery, and effective elaboration of selected topics. Yearly composition portfolios could include character analyses, narratives, persuasive papers, short essays, critical reviews, expository writings, and research papers.
In addition, at least one research paper must be written each year - five, seven, eight, and ten pages for grades nine through twelve respectively. The research paper must include a title page, an outline, a body with a clear introduction and conclusion, correct use of parenthetical citations, a bibliography, a thesis statement which is followed throughout the paper, and evidence that the student's research was thorough and comprehensive. Follow MLA guidelines (or another standard format) to ensure a properly formatted research paper.
It is essential that an honors student acquire a thorough knowledge of English grammar. Not only should the student be able to recognize the eight parts of speech, he should also be able to analyze and/or diagram sentences. One important goal of language and grammar studies is to prepare the student to produce written work free of mechanical errors.
An honors student should be familiar with persuasive, argumentative, informative, impromptu, humorous, and extemporaneous speeches. All require different preparation and are beneficial to the student's development as a public speaker. Therefore, the yearly speech requirement should come from one of these categories. The student must present a minimum of one self-prepared speech per year to a group outside the immediate family.
Follow this link to download an Academic Diploma with Honors Checklist: Honors Checklist
Students who meet the requirements for an Academic Diploma and complete nine credits of vocational courses (a minimum of three credits each year for three years during grades nine through twelve - three credits being equal to one-half school day for 180 days or 360 hours), could have their vocational training recognized on their diploma, e.g. "Academic Diploma with a Specialization in…".
Students who earn a General Diploma and, in addition to the core fifteen credits, complete nine credits of vocational courses (a minimum of three credits each year for three years during grades nine through twelve - three credits being equal to one-half school day for 180 days or 360 hours), could have their vocational training recognized on their diploma, e.g. "General Diploma with a specialization in…".
Study topics well suited for the specialization include Keyboarding, Business Math, Business English, bookkeeping and accounting courses, computer courses dealing with website design or development, communication courses geared toward business, and other business courses. Additionally, credit could be earned through training in Microsoft Office or training in QuickBooks, Sage or any other business software. At the discretion of the evaluator, Eagle Scout or Girl Scout projects or well-written research papers exploring some aspect of the business world could count toward credits. Credits could also be earned through entrepreneurship, internship, or on-the-job training. Entrepreneurship would include writing up a business plan, attending business seminars, and following through with the implementation and management of a business. Internship or on-the-job training would require new skills and education progressing each year beyond the initial credit or credits.
Courses and recommendations presented here are not requirements. Suggestions are offered to prompt your own ideas in designing a nine credit plan for high school specialization in business and to encourage the business minded student in the pursuit of his interests.
Where homeschoolers have not kept good documentation, the evaluators, at their discretion, may choose to accept credits for previous years of homeschooling based upon interviews with the parent and student.